When natural photoreception is disrupted, as in outer-retinal degenerative diseases, artificial stimulation of surviving nerve cells offers a potential strategy for bypassing compromised neural circuits. Recently, light-sensitive proteins that photosensitize quiescent neurons have generated unprecedented opportunities for optogenetic neuronal control, inspiring early development of optical retinal prostheses. Selectively exciting large neural populations are essential for eliciting meaningful perceptions in the brain. Here we provide the first demonstration of holographic photo-stimulation strategies for bionic vision restoration. In blind retinas, we demonstrate reliable holographically patterned optogenetic stimulation of retinal ganglion cells with millisecond temporal precision and cellular resolution. Holographic excitation strategies could enable flexible control over distributed neuronal circuits, potentially paving the way towards high-acuity vision restoration devices and additional medical and scientific neuro-photonics applications.
|State||Published - 2013|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We acknowledge the financial support of the European Research Council (grant no. 211055), the Israel Science Foundation (1248/06) and the Elias Fund for Medical Research. I.R.-G. and N.F. were supported by fellowships from the Israeli Ministry of Science and Technology. We thank E. Zemel and I. Perlman for their assistance.