Hebrew validation of the postpartum bonding questionnaire: a study of mothers and fathers

Maor Kalfon- Hakhmigari, Hila Segal, Yoav Peled, Jonathan E. Handelzalts

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Objective: The Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ) is a self-report questionnaire designed to screen disorders of the mother–infant relationship. The PBQ was adapted to several countries, though there is no agreement on the accepted number of items and factors. This study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of the Hebrew version for both mothers and fathers. Methods: Participants (602 mothers and 144 fathers) from two separate samples were randomly recruited in the maternity ward of a large tertiary health centre. The mothers’ samples were combined and redivided to form subsamples A and B. At T1 (1–4 days postpartum), the participants completed demographic questionnaire in person the PBQ and the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) were administered online at T2 (8–12 weeks postpartum). The PBQ was also administrated at T3 (six-months). Results: EFA on subsample A resulted in a two-factor structure, which was tested using CFA on subsample B. The model’s fit was very good; χ(35)2 = 83.68, p <.001, CFI =.97, TLI =.91, RMSEA =.07, SRMR =.03. Additional reliability and validity analyses showed a very good fit for mothers. Scalar measurement invariance across mothers and fathers yielded satisfactory results. CFA among fathers, revealed adequate goodness of fit; χ2/df = 87.65/46, p <.001, CFI =.95, TLI =.89, RMSEA =.08, SRMR =.05. Conclusions: The Hebrew version of the PBQ demonstrated satisfactory validity for both mothers and fathers. The revised version, with 14 items, measures bonding as a continuum rather than measuring bonding disorders like the original version. These findings emphasise the importance of validating the scale in different cultural contexts.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
Early online date15 Aug 2023
StateE-pub ahead of print - 15 Aug 2023
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Society for Reproductive & Infant Psychology.


  • Bonding
  • Hebrew
  • fathers
  • mothers
  • reliability
  • validity


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