Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients With a Left Ventricular Assist Device (QOLVAD) Questionnaire

Kristin E. Sandau, Christopher S. Lee, Kenneth M. Faulkner, Bunny Pozehl, Peter Eckman, Ross Garberich, Carrie E. Weaver, Susan M. Joseph, Shelley Hall, Sandra A. Carey, Sunit Preet Chaudhry, Sarah E. Schroeder, Russell O. Hoffman, David Feldman, Edo Y. Birati, Meshal Soni, Judith Feighery Marble, Corrine Y. Jurgens, Barbara Hoglund, Jennifer A. Cowger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Background Patients with a left ventricular assist device are a unique and growing population who deserve their own valid, reliable instrument for health-related quality of life. Objective We developed and tested the Health-Related Quality of Life with a Left Ventricular Assist Device (QOLVAD) questionnaire. Methods In a prospective, descriptive study, patients from 7 sites completed the QOLVAD and comparator questionnaires. Construct validity was tested using confirmatory factor analysis. Convergent validity was tested using correlations of QOLVAD scores to well-established measures of subjective health status, depression, anxiety, and meaning/faith. Reliability and test-retest reliability were quantified. Results Patients (n = 213) were 58.7 ± 13.9 years old; 81.0% were male, 73.7% were White, and 48.0% had bridge to transplant. Questionnaires were completed at a median time of 44 weeks post ventricular assist device. The 5 QOLVAD domains had acceptable construct validity (root mean square error of approximation = 0.064, comparative and Tucker-Lewis fit indices > 0.90, weighted root mean square residual = 0.95). The total score and domain-specific scores were significantly correlated with the instruments to which they were compared. Internal consistency reliability was acceptable for all subscales (α =.79-.83) except the cognitive domain (α =.66). Unidimensional reliability for the total score was acceptable (α =.93), as was factor determinacy for multidimensional reliability (0.95). Total test-retest reliability was 0.875 (P <.001). Conclusion Our analysis provided initial support for validity and reliability of the QOLVAD for total score, physical, emotional, social, and meaning/spiritual domains. The QOLVAD has potential in research and clinical settings to guide decision making and referrals; further studies are needed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)172-184
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Cardiovascular Nursing
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2021
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


This study was supported by grants from the following sources: Abbott-Northwestern Hospital Foundation, Minneapolis Heart Institute Foundation, and Minnesota Nurses Association Foundation. P.E. received honoraria from or is a consultant for Abbott Laboratories and Medtronic (paid to the institution, not the individual). S.M.J. receives speaking honoraria from Abbot (modest) and consulting fees from Medtronic (minimal). S.H. is a consultant for Abbott Laboratories. E.Y.B. received grants from Impulse Dynamics, personal fees from American Regent, and grants from Medtronic Inc. B.H. received a grant (shared with K.E.S.) from Minnesota Nurses Association Foundation (completed). All were paid to Minneapolis Heart Institute Foundation to be managed (not paid to the individual). J.A.C. Received personal fees from Abbott and Medtronic and is a member of the scientific advisory committee for Medtronic and Procyrion—all outside the submitted work. K.E.S. and B.H. are coauthors of the QOLVAD questionnaire and hold it as intellectual property. BH does contract work with Lippincott/WK as a Nurse Educator Consultant. (JCVN is owned/published by Lippincott/Wolters Kluwer - which is the owner of a Lippincott Clinical Experiences product from which BH receives royalties). [The QOLVAD questionnaire has been granted without charge to others who request permission in advance for nonprofit use.]

FundersFunder number
Minnesota Nurses Association Foundation
Minneapolis Heart Institute Foundation
Abbott Northwestern Hospital Foundation


    • LVAD
    • cardiac assist device
    • health-related quality of life
    • instrument development
    • quality of life


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