Rafat Ghanamah, Mona S. Julius, Esther Adi-Japha

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Handwriting is a perceptual-motor skill, acquired through repetitive practice. Handwriting production is most often characterized by performance speed (also termed ‘production fluency’, often assessed using text-copying tasks and legibility. Studies have found that handwriting legibility develops quickly during first grade (ages 6-7 years), reaching a plateau by second grade. In some cultures, depending on practice level, by third grade, handwriting becomes automatic, organized, and available as a tool to facilitate the development of ideas. However, handwriting is not a straightforward motor skill and has been linked with reading development. Measures of motor proficiency that correlate with handwriting production in school-aged children show an indirect effect on handwriting via reading-related skills, such as orthography, underscoring reading as a mediator of the association between motor proficiency and handwriting production. Many processes are common to reading and writing. In particular, both are related to the acquisition of a common writing system, comprised of symbols, and share common motor procedures, such as those related to directionality. In this chapter, we focus on the practice required for the acquisition of a written symbol, that is, a letter, and to the association between the ability to acquire single letter writing, handwriting, and reading.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationRoutledge International Handbook of Visualmotor Skills, Handwriting, and Spelling
Subtitle of host publicationTheory, Research, and Practice
EditorsYanyan Ye, Tomohiro Inoue, Urs Maurer, Catherine McBride
PublisherTaylor and Francis
Number of pages13
ISBN (Electronic)9781000922837
ISBN (Print)9781032255743
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 selection and editorial matter, Yanyan Ye, Tomohiro Inoue, Urs Maurer, and Catherine McBride; individual chapters, the contributors.


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