Background: There is clear evidence that tic disorders (TDs) are associated with psychosocial stress as well as emotional and behavioral problems. Studies have shown that individuals with TDs have higher acute physiological stress responses to external, single stressors (as reflected by saliva cortisol). The aim of the present study was to examine a physiological marker of longer-term stress (as reflected by hair cortisol concentration) in children and adolescents with TDs and unaffected siblings of individuals with TDs. Methods: Two samples of a European cohort were included in this study. In the COURSE sample, 412 children and adolescents aged 3–16 years with a chronic TD including Tourette syndrome according to DSM IV-TR criteria were included. The ONSET sample included 131 3–10 years old siblings of individuals with TDs, who themselves had no tics. Differences in hair cortisol concentration (HCC) between the two samples were examined. Within the COURSE sample, relations of HCC with tic severity and perceived psychosocial stress as well as potential effects and interaction effects of comorbid emotional and behavioral problems and psychotropic medication on HCC were investigated. Results: There were no differences in HCC between the two samples. In participants with TDs, there were no associations between HCC and tic severity or perceived psychosocial stress. No main effects of sex, psychotropic medication status and comorbid emotional and behavioral problems on HCC were found in participants with TDs. Conclusion: A link between HCC and TDs is not supported by the present results.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry|
|State||Published - May 2022|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors are deeply grateful to all children and their parents who willingly participated and made this research possible. This project has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under Grant agreement no. 278367. This research was supported by Stiftung Immunität und Seele (Burger, Müller, Schnell); and the National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust and University College London (Heyman); and Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG): projects 1692/3-1, 4-1 and FOR 2698 (Münchau); Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG): FOR 2698 (Roessner). We thank all colleagues at the various study centers who contributed to data collection:, Judy Grejsen (Paediatric Department, Herlev University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark); Julie E. Bruun, Christine L. Ommundsen, Mette Rubæk (Capital Region Psychiatry, Copenhagen, Denmark); Stephanie Enghardt (TUD Dresden, Germany); Stefanie Bokemeyer, Cornelia Reichert (MHH Hannover, Germany); Jenny Schmalfeld (Lübeck University, Germany); Elif Weidinger (LMU Munich, Germany); Martin L. Woods (Evelina London Children’s Hospital, United Kingdom); Franciska Gergye, Margit Kovacs, Reka Vidomusz (Vadaskert Budapest, Hungary); Silvana Fennig, Ella Gev, Matan Nahon, Danny Horesh, Chen Regev, Tomer Simcha, (Tel Aviv, Petah-Tikva, Israel); Els van den Ban, Sebastian F.T.M. de Bruijn, Nicole Driessen, Andreas Lamerz, Marieke Messchendorp, Judith J.G. Rath, Anne Marie Stolte, Nadine Schalk, Deborah Sival, Noor Tromp and the Stichting Gilles de la Tourette (UMCG Groningen, Netherlands); Maria Teresa Cáceres, Fátima Carrillo, Laura Vargas and all who may not have been mentioned.
Open Access funding enabled and organized by Projekt DEAL. This project has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement no 278367.
© 2021, The Author(s).
- Chronic tic disorders
- Emotional and behavioral problems
- Physiological stress marker
- Psychosocial stress