Recently, graphene and its derivatives have been extensively investigated for their interest-ing properties in many biomedical fields, including tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Nonetheless, graphene oxide (GO) and reduced GO (rGO) are still under investigation for improving their dispersibility in aqueous solutions and their safety in different cell types. This work explores the interaction of GO and rGO with different polymeric dispersants, such as glycol chitosan (GC), propylene glycol alginate (PGA), and polydopamine (PDA), and their effects on human chondro-cytes. GO was synthesized using Hummer’s method, followed by a sonication-assisted liquid-phase exfoliation (LPE) process, drying, and thermal reduction to obtain rGO. The flakes of GO and rGO exhibited an average lateral size of 8.8 ± 4.6 and 18.3 ± 8.5 µm, respectively. Their dispersibility and colloidal stability were investigated in the presence of the polymeric surfactants, resulting in an improvement in the suspension stability in terms of average size and polydispersity index over 1 h, in particular for PDA. Furthermore, cytotoxic effects induced by coated and uncoated GO and rGO on human chondrocytes at different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50 and 100 µg/mL) were assessed through LDH assay. Results showed a concentration-dependent response, and the presence of PGA contributed to statistically decreasing the difference in the LDH activity with respect to the control. These results open the way to a potentially safer use of these nanomaterials in the fields of cartilage tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.
|State||Published - Aug 2021|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This work received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (grant agreement no. 814413), project ADvanced nanocomposite MAterIals fOr in situ treatment and ultRAsound-mediated management of osteoarthritis (ADMAIORA).
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- Glycol chitosan
- Graphene oxide
- Human chondrocytes
- Polydispersity index
- Propylene glycol alginate
- Reduced graphene oxide