Grape Seed Extract Assisted Synthesis of Dual-Functional Anatase TiO2Decorated Reduced Graphene Oxide Composite for Supercapacitor Electrode Material and Visible Light Photocatalytic Degradation of Bromophenol Blue Dye

Subramanian Ramanathan, Sasikumar Moorthy, Subramaniyan Ramasundaram, Hari Krishna Rajan, Sujayakumar Vishwanath, Steplinpaulselvin Selvinsimpson, Arulappan Durairaj, Byungki Kim, Samuel Vasanthkumar

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18 Scopus citations

Abstract

The grape extract is a potential natural reducing agent because of its high phenolic content. The extracts of seeds, skin, and pulp of grape were prepared by digestion, grinding, and soxhlet methods and used for reducing graphene oxide (GO). The reduced GO made using the soxhlet extract of grape seed (GRGO) was hydrothermally treated with titanium dioxide (TiO2) for the synthesis of GRGO-TiO2 nanocomposite. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), UV-vis, photoluminescence, and Raman spectra studies further confirmed the formation of GRGO and the GRGO-TiO2 hybrid. Scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope studies showed the decoration of spherical TiO2 particles (<100 nm) on the few-layered GRGO sheets. The GRGO-TiO2 hybrid was explored as a working electrode for supercapacitors and visible light photocatalyst for water decontamination. GRGO-TiO2 showed higher specific capacitance (175 F g-1) than GRGO (150 F g-1) and TiO2 (125 F g-1) in an aqueous electrolyte. GRGO-TiO2 exhibited 83.6% capacitance retention even after 2000 cycles, indicating the good stability of the material. Further, under visible light irradiation (λ > 400 nm), GRGO-TiO2 showed ∼30% higher photo-oxidation of the bromophenol blue (BPB) dye than TiO2. Also, GRGO-TiO2 decreased the total organic carbon content of BPB from 92 to 18 ppm. Overall, the soxhlet extract of grape seed was found to be a cost-effective reducing agent for the preparation of GRGO, which is a suitable material to be used in supercapacitors and photocatalysis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14734-14747
Number of pages14
JournalACS Omega
Volume6
Issue number23
DOIs
StatePublished - 15 Jun 2021
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
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Funding

S. Ramanatham, A. Durairaj, and S. Vasanthkumar thank the management and administration of Karunya University for their support and help. The authors are grateful to the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, for its financial support. S. Ramasundaram and B. Kim acknowledge the Korea Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology for its financial support via the National Research Foundation of Korea for the priority Research Centers Program (NRF-2018R1A6A1A03025526) and in part by the Sabbatical Research Promotion Funding from the Korea University of Technology and Education.

FundersFunder number
Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Science and Technology, India
Korea University of Technology and Education
National Research Foundation of KoreaNRF-2018R1A6A1A03025526
Ministry of Education, Science and Technology

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