Gradual GRAM and secure computation for RAM programs

Carmit Hazay, Mor Lilintal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Despite the fact that the majority of applications encountered in practice today are captured more efficiently by RAM programs, the area of secure two-party computation (2PC) has seen tremendous improvement mostly for Boolean circuits. One of the most studied objects in this domain is garbled circuits. Analogously, garbled RAM (GRAM) provide similar security guarantees for RAM programs with applications to constant round 2PC. In this work we consider the notion of gradual GRAM which requires no memory garbling algorithm. Our approach provides several qualitative advantages over prior works due to the conceptual similarity to the analogue garbling mechanism for Boolean circuits. We next revisit the GRAM construction from (In STOC (2015) 449-458) and improve it in two orthogonal aspects: match it directly with tree-based ORAMs and explore its consistency with gradual ORAM.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)197-229
Number of pages33
JournalJournal of Computer Security
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 - IOS Press. All rights reserved.


Supported by the BIU Center for Research in Applied Cryptography and Cyber Security in conjunction with the Israel National Cyber Bureau in the Prime Minister’s Office, and by ISF grant No. 1316/18.

FundersFunder number
Israel Science Foundation1316/18


    • ORAM
    • Secure computation
    • garbled RAM


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