Gene–gene and gene–environment interactions in apolipoprotein L1 gene-associated nephropathy

Barry I. Freedman, Karl Skorecki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

85 Scopus citations

Abstract

Molecular genetics have revolutionized the understanding of susceptibility to the broad spectrum of kidney diseases with light microscopic appearance of FSGS, particularly in populations with recent African ancestry. These disorders include idiopathic FSGS, HIV-associated nephropathy, severe lupus nephritis, sickle cell nephropathy, and the primary kidney disorder focal global glomerulosclerosis, which had historically been ascribed to systemic hypertension. FSGS was once thought to include a multitude of unrelated disorders with similar histologic appearance. However, variation in the apolipoprotein L1 gene locus is now known to account for the vast majority of such cases in African Americans as well as nearly all the excess risk for FSGS and related forms of progressive nondiabetic nephropathy in populations with recent African ancestry, relative to European ancestry. Inheriting two coding apolipoprotein L1 gene nephropathy risk variants is necessary for susceptibility to CKD; however, these variants alone are insufficient to produce disease. This work reviews the evidence supporting second hits or modifying factors that affect risk for apolipoprotein L1 gene-associated nephropathy and produce the protean manifestations of this common and complex syndrome. Targeting modifiable second factors will lead to preventive therapies for slowing progression of nondiabetic nephropathy in many patients possessing two apolipoprotein L1 gene risk variants. This model of genetic risk coupled with modifiable second hits will serve as a paradigm applicable to patients with CKD of various etiologies as well as a host of other complex disorders.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2006-2013
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
Volume9
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - 7 Nov 2014
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.

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