Osteoporosis is a complex disease, with both environmental and genetic components. Moreover, there are clear suggestions that nutritional and genetic factors interact to influence bone modeling and mineral homeostasis during the years of peak bone mass acquisition, as well as influence bone remodeling and the maintenance of bone mass. Here we review the bases for candidate gene and genome-wide association studies with bone mineral density and fractures, as well as the candidate gene studies that investigated gene-dietary interactions in osteoporosis. These include the VDR, ESR1, and Il-6 gene with vitamin D and/or calcium intake, and Ppar and lipids intake. Notably, few genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to date have incorporated G*E interactions into the analysis design and this is primarily due to the challenges associated with such an approach. Also, more refined phenotypes than areal bone mineral density (aBMD) are required, with a focus on cellular and molecular processes in bones in response to nutrition. If successful, such genome-wide interaction studies (GWIS) can contribute to better bone health by proposing individualized Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for various nutrients.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015.
- Bone mineral density
- Genome-wide associations
- Vitamin D