Ga Modified Zeolite Based Solid Acid Catalyst for Levulinic Acid Production

Vijay Bhooshan Kumar, Indra Neel Pulidindi, Rahul Kumar Mishra, Aharon Gedanken

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Gallium modified zeolite (mordenite), a solid acid catalyst, was prepared using the sonochemical method. The catalyst (Ga@mordenite) was characterized using XRD, SEM, TEM, EDS, FT-IR, DSC TGA, TPD and XPS analysis. Uniform distribution of Ga on the zeolite surface was confirmed from the SEM-EDS analysis. The catalyst was further used for the production of levulinic acid (LA) from carbohydrates (glucose, starch, and cellulose) in a hydrothermal process. Reaction conditions (time, 6 h; temperature, 175 °C) for the optimum yield of LA (59.9 wt. %) were deduced. The reaction products were analyzed qualitatively using 13C NMR and quantified using HPLC analysis. Synergistic effect of the Lewis acid sites of Ga3+ generated in situ and the Bronsted acid sites of mordenite were found to be crucial for the activity of Ga@mordenite for the conversion of glucose to levulinic acid.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5952-5960
Number of pages9
Issue number18
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2016

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim


  • Ga@mordenite
  • Glucose
  • Hydrolysis
  • Hydrothermal process
  • Levulinic acid
  • Zeolite


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