pH is a tightly regulated indicator of metabolic activity. In mammalian systems, an imbalance of pH regulation may result from or result in serious illness. In this paper, we report photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) of a commercially available pH-sensitive fluorescent dye (SNARF-5F carboxylic acid) in tissue phantoms. We demonstrated that PAM is capable of pH imaging in absolute values at tissue depths of up to 2.0 mm, greater than possible with other forms of optical microscopy.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors thank James Ballard and Sandra Matteucci for help in manuscript edition. This work was supported in part by National Institutes of Health Grant Nos. U54CA136398 and R01 EB000712.
- SNARF-5F carboxylic acid
- pH imaging
- photoacoustic microscopy