Forward Brillouin Scattering in Polarization-Maintaining Fibers

Avi Zadok, Hilel Hagai Diamandi, Yosef London, Gil Bashan

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


Polarization-maintaining fibers support guided acoustic modes that are more complex than those of single-mode fibers, due to the presence of strain rods. Forward Brillouin scattering interactions in those fibers can be intra-modal as well as inter-modal. Intra-modal interactions involve the stimulation of guided acoustic waves by a pair of optical fields that co-propagate in a common principal axis. The intra-modal processes can lead to phase modulation of co-polarized optical probe signals, similar to standard single-mode fibers. The forward Brillouin scattering spectra differ between the two axes. In addition, acoustic modes stimulated through an intra-modal process in one axis may also modulate a probe wave in the orthogonal axis. Such inter-polarization cross-phase modulation is analogous to the dynamic gratings of backward Brillouin scattering in polarization-maintaining fibers. In inter-modal forward Brillouin scattering, two optical fields of orthogonal polarizations stimulate the oscillations of a guided acoustic wave. The process can lead to the switching and coupling of probe waves of specific frequencies from one principal axis to the other. Such coupling is non-reciprocal: probe waves that counter-propagate with respect to the initiating optical fields undergo polarization switching, whereas co-propagating probe waves of the same frequencies are unaffected. The switching of counter-propagating probe waves is useful for the spatially distributed analysis of forward Brillouin scattering spectra.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSpringer Series in Optical Sciences
PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Number of pages21
StatePublished - 2022

Publication series

NameSpringer Series in Optical Sciences
ISSN (Print)0342-4111
ISSN (Electronic)1556-1534

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.


  • Brillouin scattering
  • Four-wave mixing
  • Non-reciprocity
  • Optical fibers
  • Opto-mechanics
  • Polarization maintaining
  • Polarization switching


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