2,4-Hexadienal (2,4-Hx) was studied for its toxicity and carcinogenicity because of its α, β-unsaturated aldehyde structure and potential link between exposure to lipid peroxidation products in the diet and human malignancies. Male and female F344N rats and B6C3F1 mice received 2,4-Hx in corn oil by gavage for 16 days, 14 weeks, or 2 years. In the 16-day studies 2,4-Hx induced forestomach necrosis and ulceration at 240 mg/kg and forestomach epithelial hyperplasia at 80 mg/kg in rats and mice. In the 14-week studies the chemical induced forestomach hyperplasia and nasal olfactory atrophy or necrosis at 120 mg/kg in rats and mice. In the 2-year studies 2,4-Hx induced squamous cell papilloma and carcinoma of the forestomach in male and female rats at 45 and 90 mg/kg and in male and female mice at 120 mg/kg. Two male mice in the 120 mg/kg group had uncommon squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (tongue). Mechanistic studies indicated that the forestomach carcinogenesis in rats and mice may be due to depletion of glutathione as a result of oxidative stress induced by 2,4-Hx.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
P. C. Chan (&) Æ J. Mahler Æ S. Peddada Æ A. Nyska National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Tel.: +1-919-541-7561 Fax: +1-919-541-4255
- Forestomach tumors