Forestomach tumor induction by 2,4-hexadienal in F344N rats and B6C3F1 mice

Po C. Chan, Joel Mahler, Shyamal Peddada, Liat Lomnitski, Abraham Nyska

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4 Scopus citations


2,4-Hexadienal (2,4-Hx) was studied for its toxicity and carcinogenicity because of its α, β-unsaturated aldehyde structure and potential link between exposure to lipid peroxidation products in the diet and human malignancies. Male and female F344N rats and B6C3F1 mice received 2,4-Hx in corn oil by gavage for 16 days, 14 weeks, or 2 years. In the 16-day studies 2,4-Hx induced forestomach necrosis and ulceration at 240 mg/kg and forestomach epithelial hyperplasia at 80 mg/kg in rats and mice. In the 14-week studies the chemical induced forestomach hyperplasia and nasal olfactory atrophy or necrosis at 120 mg/kg in rats and mice. In the 2-year studies 2,4-Hx induced squamous cell papilloma and carcinoma of the forestomach in male and female rats at 45 and 90 mg/kg and in male and female mice at 120 mg/kg. Two male mice in the 120 mg/kg group had uncommon squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (tongue). Mechanistic studies indicated that the forestomach carcinogenesis in rats and mice may be due to depletion of glutathione as a result of oxidative stress induced by 2,4-Hx.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)511-520
Number of pages10
JournalArchives of Toxicology
Issue number9
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2003

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
P. C. Chan (&) Æ J. Mahler Æ S. Peddada Æ A. Nyska National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA E-mail: Tel.: +1-919-541-7561 Fax: +1-919-541-4255


  • 2,4-Hexadienal
  • Forestomach tumors
  • Mice
  • Rats


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