Flexible Proof Production in an Industrial-Strength SMT Solver

Haniel Barbosa, Andrew Reynolds, Gereon Kremer, Hanna Lachnitt, Aina Niemetz, Andres Nötzli, Alex Ozdemir, Mathias Preiner, Arjun Viswanathan, Scott Viteri, Yoni Zohar, Cesare Tinelli, Clark Barrett

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Proof production for SMT solvers is paramount to ensure their correctness independently from implementations, which are often prohibitively difficult to verify. Historically, however, SMT proof production has struggled with performance and coverage issues, resulting in the disabling of many crucial solving techniques and in coarse-grained (and thus hard to check) proofs. We present a flexible proof-production architecture designed to handle the complexity of versatile, industrial-strength SMT solvers and show how we leverage it to produce detailed proofs, including for components previously unsupported by any solver. The architecture allows proofs to be produced modularly, lazily, and with numerous safeguards for correctness. This architecture has been implemented in the state-of-the-art SMT solver cvc5. We evaluate its proofs for SMT-LIB benchmarks and show that the new architecture produces better coverage than previous approaches, has acceptable performance overhead, and supports detailed proofs for most solving components.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAutomated Reasoning - 11th International Joint Conference, IJCAR 2022, Proceedings
EditorsJasmin Blanchette, Laura Kovács, Dirk Pattinson
PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Number of pages21
ISBN (Print)9783031107689
StatePublished - 2022
Event11th International Joint Conference on Automated Reasoning, IJCAR 2022, part of the Federated Logic Conference, FLoC 2022 - Haifa, Israel
Duration: 8 Aug 202210 Aug 2022

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume13385 LNAI
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Conference11th International Joint Conference on Automated Reasoning, IJCAR 2022, part of the Federated Logic Conference, FLoC 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was partially supported by the Office of Naval Research (Contract No. 68335-17-C-0558), a gift from Amazon Web Services, and by NSF-BSF grant numbers 2110397 (NSF) and 2020704 (BSF).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s).


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