Fixation of treated phosphate waste and its use in concrete

Roy Nir Lieberman, Yaniv Knop, Natalia Moreno Palmerola, Ariel Goldman, Xavier Querol, Carmen Muñoz-Quirós, Haim Cohen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Currently, in Israel, phosphate acidic wastes formed during the production of phosphoric acid (H3PO4) using hydrochloric acid (HCl) are stored in large ponds. At present, this waste is only neutralized using lime (CaO) or calcite (CaCO3). This paper investigated the potential use of Class F (<20% CaO) coal fly ash (FA) as a fixation reagent of the neutralized hazardous phosphate industry waste. Studies have shown that FA can be an efficient scrubber and fixation reagent for various kinds of acidic toxic waste. Several analytical techniques including ICP-AES, ICP-MS, SEM-EDX, and XRD, ion penetration and compression/flexure strength tests (according to ASTM C1202, IS26/4.1, and 4.2 protocols), as well as leaching experiments (EN12457-2) were used to study the fixation quality and potential utilization of the fixated product as partial substitute to sand in concrete. Scrubbing phosphate waste with the FA was found to effective in reducing the leaching rate of toxic trace elements. Moreover, the use of aggregates as a partial substitute for sand in concrete improves the mechanical and chemical properties and is environmental safe. Thus, these procedures would eliminate costly treatment and storage of these toxic wastes relatively inexpensively as well as enhance industrial concrete for civil engineering projects.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)89-97
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Cleaner Production
StatePublished - 20 Mar 2018
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 Elsevier Ltd


We would like to thank the ICP-MS, ICP-AES, and XRD technicians in the IDAEA/CSIC Institute in Barcelona, Spain. We would also like to acknowledge the support of the Generalitat de Catalunya ( AGAUR 2015 SGR33 ) and to the Israeli Coal Ash Board . Also,we would like to express special gratitude to Dr. Nadya Teutsch from the Geological Survey of Israel for ICP analysis. Appendix A

FundersFunder number
Israeli Coal Ash Board
Generalitat de CatalunyaAGAUR 2015 SGR33


    • Aggregate product
    • Chemical scrubber
    • Fly ash
    • Phosphate waste
    • Trace elements


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