Fast Charging of Lithium-Ion Batteries: A Review of Materials Aspects

Manuel Weiss, Raffael Ruess, Johannes Kasnatscheew, Yehonatan Levartovsky, Natasha Ronith Levy, Philip Minnmann, Lukas Stolz, Thomas Waldmann, Margret Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, Doron Aurbach, Martin Winter, Yair Ein-Eli, Jürgen Janek

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

454 Scopus citations

Abstract

Fast charging is considered to be a key requirement for widespread economic success of electric vehicles. Current lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) offer high energy density enabling sufficient driving range, but take considerably longer to recharge than traditional vehicles. Multiple properties of the applied anode, cathode, and electrolyte materials influence the fast-charging ability of a battery cell. In this review, the physicochemical basics of different material combinations are considered in detail, identifying the transport of lithium inside the electrodes as the crucial rate-limiting steps for fast-charging. Lithium diffusion within the active materials inherently slows down the charging process and causes high overpotentials. In addition, concentration polarization by slow lithium-ion transport within the electrolyte phase in the porous electrodes also limits the charging rate. Both kinetic effects are responsible for lithium plating observed on graphite anodes. Conclusions drawn from potential and concentration profiles within LIB cells are complemented by extensive literature surveys on anode, cathode, and electrolyte materials—including solid-state batteries. The advantages and disadvantages of typical LIB materials are analyzed, resulting in suggestions for optimum properties on the material and electrode level for fast-charging applications. Finally, limitations on the cell level are discussed briefly as well.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2101126
JournalAdvanced Energy Materials
Volume11
Issue number33
DOIs
StatePublished - 2 Sep 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Authors. Advanced Energy Materials published by Wiley-VCH GmbH

Funding

The authors thank Joachim Sann (JLU) for fruitful discussions and Raimund Koerver (BMW AG), Dominik Weber (Volkswagen AG), and Andreas Fischer (BASF SE) for critical comments on the manuscript. Financial support is highly appreciated and acknowledged from the following entities and foundations: the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF) within GIBS 4 bi-national workshop, ELONGATE (03XP0248), FestBatt (03XP0180), LiMetalFreeSSiBAT (03XP0141), and by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) within the Structur.e (03ETE018E) project, the Israeli Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), the Planning & Budgeting Committee/Israel Council for Higher Education (CHE), and Fuel Choice Initiative (Prime Minister Office) within the framework of “Israel National Research Center for Electrochemical Propulsion” (INREP 2) and by the Grand Technion Energy Program (GTEP). Open access funding enabled and organized by Projekt DEAL. The authors thank Joachim Sann (JLU) for fruitful discussions and Raimund Koerver (BMW AG), Dominik Weber (Volkswagen AG), and Andreas Fischer (BASF SE) for critical comments on the manuscript. Financial support is highly appreciated and acknowledged from the following entities and foundations: the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF) within GIBS 4 bi‐national workshop, ELONGATE (03XP0248), FestBatt (03XP0180), LiMetalFreeSSiBAT (03XP0141), and by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) within the Structur.e (03ETE018E) project, the Israeli Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), the Planning & Budgeting Committee/Israel Council for Higher Education (CHE), and Fuel Choice Initiative (Prime Minister Office) within the framework of “Israel National Research Center for Electrochemical Propulsion” (INREP 2) and by the Grand Technion Energy Program (GTEP).

FundersFunder number
Fuel Choice Initiative
Joachim Sann
Prime Minister Office
Division of Chemistry
Justus Liebig Universität Gießen
Nancy and Stephen Grand Technion Energy Program
Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung03XP0141, 03XP0180, 03XP0248
Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan
Ministry of science and technology, Israel
Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie03ETE018E
Planning and Budgeting Committee of the Council for Higher Education of Israel

    Keywords

    • cell degradation
    • fast-charging batteries
    • lithium chemical diffusion
    • lithium plating
    • lithium-ion batteries

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