It is widely accepted that there is a causal association between Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Kaposi sarcoma (KS). However, the majority of individuals infected with KSHV never develop KS. Here, we present a unique familial case of classic KS, in which the disease occurs in 4 siblings who have no recognized underlying immunodeficiency. We examine risk factors that could play a role in this condition, including KSHV infection, KSHV DNA load, genetic variants of KSHV, infection with additional viruses, interleukin-6-promoter polymorphism, and HLA genotype. We hypothesize that a genetic susceptibility to KS, in combination with KSHV infection, may play an important role in the presented familial case.