Introduction: Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of morbidity in children, despite advances in health care and anti-pneumococcal vaccine. Complicated pneumonia accounts for a significant burden with prolonged hospitalization. Finding risk factors for complicated pneumonia may help in tailoring management. We aimed to identify risk factors for developing complicated pneumonia and need for intervention. Methods: A retrospective single tertiary center study. Children admitted with a diagnosis of CAP and/or complicated pneumonia (parapneumonic effusion, empyema, necrotizing pneumonia, and lung abscess) on January 2001–March 2020 were included. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory parameters were collected using MDclone, a data acquisition tool. Risk factors for complicated pneumonia (on admission or during hospitalization) and risk for intervention were analyzed. Results: A total of 6778 children with pneumonia were included; 323 arrived at the Emergency Department with complicated pneumonia while 232 developed a complication during hospitalization. Risk factors for complicated pneumonia (on admission or during hospitalization) were Arab ethnicity, cardiac disease, increased age, and CRP and low O2 Sat (OR = 2.236 p <.001, OR = 4.376 p <.001, OR = 1.131 p <.001, OR = 1.065 p <.001 and OR = 0.959 p =.029, respectively). O2 Sat was lower, while fever and CRP were higher in patients with complicated pneumonia requiring intervention. Conclusions: Identifying children at risk for complicated pneumonia may help in decision-making in the Emergency Department and during hospitalization. The increased risk of the Arab population for complicated pneumonia requires further understanding. Addressing the underlying socioeconomic and ethnic health inequities may help to decrease the disease burden in this population.
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- community acquired pneumonia
- complicated pneumonia