Exploring Localized Provoked Vulvodynia: Insights from Animal Model Research

Yara Nakhleh-Francis, Yaseen Awad-Igbaria, Reem Sakas, Sarina Bang, Saher Abu-Ata, Eilam Palzur, Lior Lowenstein, Jacob Bornstein

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Provoked vulvodynia represents a challenging chronic pain condition, characterized by its multifactorial origins. The inherent complexities of human-based studies have necessitated the use of animal models to enrich our understanding of vulvodynia's pathophysiology. This review aims to provide an exhaustive examination of the various animal models employed in this research domain. A comprehensive search was conducted on PubMed, utilizing keywords such as "vulvodynia", "chronic vulvar pain", "vulvodynia induction", and "animal models of vulvodynia" to identify pertinent studies. The search yielded three primary animal models for vulvodynia: inflammation-induced, allergy-induced, and hormone-induced. Additionally, six agents capable of triggering the condition through diverse pathways were identified, including factors contributing to hyperinnervation, mast cell proliferation, involvement of other immune cells, inflammatory cytokines, and neurotransmitters. This review systematically outlines the various animal models developed to study the pathogenesis of provoked vulvodynia. Understanding these models is crucial for the exploration of preventative measures, the development of novel treatments, and the overall advancement of research within the field.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number8
StatePublished - 11 Apr 2024


  • Localized Provoked Vulvodynia (LPV)
  • animal model of vulvodynia
  • chronic vulvar pain
  • hyperinnervation
  • vulvodynia
  • vulvodynia induction


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