Experimental Spectroscopic, Computational, Hirshfeld Surface, Molecular Docking Investigations on 1H-Indole-3-Carbaldehyde

Aysha Fatima, Ghazala Khanum, Arun Sharma, Indresh Verma, Himanshu Arora, Nazia Siddiqui, Saleem Javed

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


1H-Indole-3-carbaldehyde (1H-I3A) was investigated experimentally by NMR (1H-NMR and 13 C-NMR in solution form), FT-Raman, FT-IR, UV-Visible and quantum chemically by DFT approach. 3 D and 2 D surface analysis was carried by Hirshfeld surface analysis. The B3LYP method and the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set were used to optimize the molecular structure and vibrational modes. Optimized binding parameters and experimental binding parameters are in good agreement. VEDA (Vibrational Energy Distribution analysis) successfully carried out and complete tasks for the distribution of potential energy. 1H-NMR and 13 C-NMR shifts were estimated with GIAO method and the results compared with experimental spectra. The TDDFT method and the PCM solvent model were used for the analysis of electronic properties such as UV-Vis (in the gas phase, methanol and DMSO) and compared with the experimental UV-Vis spectra. The HOMO/LUMO energy results underscore that sufficient charge transfer has taken place within the molecule. Studies of donor-acceptor connections were performed using NBO analysis. The MEP surface analysis was performed and charge distribution was demonstrated. The degree of relative localization of electrons was analyzed using the FLF diagram. The Fukui functional analysis to find possible points of attack for various substituents. Molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) was created and 3-D color representation shows reactive sites. Study of donor-acceptor interconnections were done via NBO analysis. The biological study like molecular docking was done with 7 different receptors to find the best ligand-protein interactions and drug similarities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1263-1287
Number of pages25
JournalPolycyclic Aromatic Compounds
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2023
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


We acknowledge Dr. B. R. Ambedkar University, Agra, India for providing necessary facilities, for FT-IR and UV–Vis spectra, SAIF-CDRI Lucknow, for recording NMR spectrum, IIT Indore for recording Raman spectrum. No financial support received from anywhere for the work done in this paper.

FundersFunder number
Ambedkar University
Indian Institute of Technology Indore


    • ELF
    • MEP
    • Optimization
    • docking
    • hirshfeld surface
    • vibrational analysis


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