Eureka: Realizing that an application is responding to your brainwaves

Jonathan Giron, Doron Friedman

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


We have conducted an experiment in which subjects controlled a brain-computer interface (BCI) without being aware that their brainwaves were responsible for events in the scenario. Ten subjects went through a stage of model training in steady state visually evoked potential (SSVEP)-based BCI, followed by three trials of an immersive experience where stars moved as a response to SSVEP classification. Only then the subjects were explained that they were using a BCI, and this was followed by an additional trial of immersive free choice BCI and a final validation stage. Three out of the ten subjects realized that they controlled the interface, and these subjects had better accuracy than the rest of the subjects and reported a higher sense of agency in a post study questionnaire.


  • agency
  • brain computer interface
  • electroencephalogram
  • steady state visually evoked potentials


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