RNA synthesis in eucaryotes takes place on template molecules that are activated by stably associating with limiting transcription factors. In this paper we demonstrate that such stable transcription complexes can be specifically sedimented from in vitro transcription reaction mixtures by mild centrifugation. This occurs with stable complexes of genes transcribed by all three classes of eucaryotic RNA polymerase and with S-100 as well as whole-cell extracts. However, the transcriptional capacity of the isolated complex differs for the three polymerase classes. The pelleted ribosomal DNA (polymerase I) complex contains all the factors necessary for transcription, each purified 25- to 50-fold, whereas the pelleted adenovirus major late promoter (polymerase II) complex lacks a factor that remains in the supernatant. In the case of 5S DNA (polymerase III), a necessary factor associates slowly with the sedimentable complex. Notably, the interactions responsible for this rapid sedimentation are specific for DNA molecules in stable complexes, suggesting that the in vitro sedimentable complex mirrors the in vivo structural organization of active genes.