Etrog Citrons of the Land of Israel in Modern Times

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


This chapter deals with milestones in the history of etrog [pl. etrogim] citrons growing in the Land of Israel from the second half of the nineteenth century until the present. It reviews several of the varieties associated with the native, traditional etrogim that grew in antiquity and their development. The etrogim found in the hills of Shechem (Nablus), Umm al-Fahm, Safed, Jerusalem, and Jericho were cultivated by Jewish growers for the purpose of fulfilling the biblical commandment of “the Four Species” (arba minim) and are publicly distinguished as Braverman, Kibilewitz, Shlomai, and the Chazon Ish. The cultivation of these different varieties of etrogim was largely in response to the etrog grafting controversy that preoccupied the world of halakhah in modern times. The traditional Land of Israel etrog was characterized by a protracted growing cycle, a large fruit with irregular contours, and generally without a pitam (persistent style). The introduction of other Mediterranean varieties, suspected to have arisen from a grafting lineage, had a marked effect on etrog cultivation and commerce.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe Citron Compendium
Subtitle of host publicationThe Citron (Etrog) Citrus medica L.: Science and Tradition
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages26
ISBN (Electronic)9783031257759
ISBN (Print)9783031257742
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2023.

RAMBI Publications

  • RAMBI Publications
  • Etrog -- History
  • Etrog -- Israel
  • Trees -- Eretz Israel
  • Agriculture -- Eretz Israel -- History


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