The alignment between the energy levels of the constituents of an organic solar cell plays a central role in determining the open-circuit voltage. However, tuning the energy levels of electrodes and/or active components via molecular modifiers placed at interfaces is not straightforward. The morphology of organic materials is commonly controlled by the substrate onto which they are deposited, and differences in morphology often lead to differences in energetics. Such a change in morphology may reduce the effect of surface modifications, as the modified surface is part of an interface with the organic material. Here we show, in an experimental model system, that by using binary molecular monolayers, in which dipolar molecules are buried in a protective nonpolar matrix, we can transform changes in the electrode surface dipole into interface dipole changes without significantly affecting the growth of pentacene onto the molecular layer, thus enabling the use of the full range of dipolar-induced open-circuit-voltage tuning.
- Energy alignment
- Interface dipole
- UV photoemission spectroscopy
- mixed monolayers
- organic photovoltaics