Ultrasound irradiation and hyperosmotic treatments were compared as facilitators of antigen (BSA) penetration through the skin by bath vaccination and as enhancers of the antibody response in goldfish. The kinetics of BSA penetration and accumulation into the skin, and via it to the blood, and the consequent specific stimulation of the humoral immune response, were studied. The main findings are: (1) ultrasonic treatment is more effective than hyperosmotic treatment in enhancing both antigen transport through the skin and antibody production; (2) the requirements for high antigen concentrations, which are needed for simple bath immersion, could be reduced five times in presonicated fish; and (3) anesthesia, which significantly reduced gill uptake following hyperosmotic treatment, had no effect on skin uptake. The importance of these finding for mass vaccination of adult fish and larvae is discussed.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by Bar-Ilan University Grant No 8526. This work was carried out within the framework of the Ph.D. research work of Noy Navot.
- Bath immersion