## Abstract

The terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 have drawn attention to the use of wireless technology in order to locate survivors of structural collapse. We propose to construct an ad hoc network of wireless smart badges in order to acquire information from trapped survivors. We investigate the energy efficient routing problem that arises in such a network and show that since smart badges have very limited power sources and very low data rates, which may be inadequate in an emergency situation, the solution of the routing problem requires new protocols. The problem is formulated as an anycast routing problem in which the objective is to maximize the time until the first battery drains-out. We present iterative algorithms for obtaining the optimal solution of the problem. Then, we derive an upper bound on the network lifetime for specific topologies. Finally, a polynomial algorithm for obtaining the optimal solution in such topologies is described.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 682-691 |

Number of pages | 10 |

Journal | Proceedings - IEEE INFOCOM |

Volume | 1 |

State | Published - 2003 |

Externally published | Yes |

Event | 22nd Annual Joint Conference on the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies - San Francisco, CA, United States Duration: 30 Mar 2003 → 3 Apr 2003 |

### Bibliographical note

Funding Information:We would like to thank Yaacov Bleiman for his invaluable advice and help. This research was supported by a grant from the Ministry of Science, Israel.

### Funding

We would like to thank Yaacov Bleiman for his invaluable advice and help. This research was supported by a grant from the Ministry of Science, Israel.

Funders | Funder number |
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Ministry of Science, Israel |

## Keywords

- Disaster recovery networks
- Energy conserving
- Energy efficient
- IEEE 802.15
- Power aware
- Routing
- Smart badges
- ad hoc networks