Energy Consumption Performance of Opportunistic Device-to-Device Relaying under Log-Normal Shadowing

S. M. Zafaruddin, Jan Plachy, Zdenek Becvar, Amir Leshem

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Efficient transmission protocols are required to minimize the energy consumption of mobile devices for ubiquitous connectivity in the next-generation of wireless networks. In this article, we analyze the energy consumption performance of a two-hop opportunistic device-select relaying (ODSR) scheme, where a device can either transmit data directly to a base station (BS) or relay the data to a nearby device, which forwards the data to the BS. We select a single device opportunistically from a device-to-device (D2D) network based on the energy required for transmission, including the energy consumed in the circuitry of the devices. By considering the log-normal shadowing as the dominant factor between devices and the BS, and Rayleigh fading in D2D links, we derive analytical bounds and scaling laws on average energy consumption. The derived analytical expressions show that the energy consumption of the ODSR decreases logarithmically with an increase in the number of devices, and achieves near-optimal performance only with a few nearby devices. This is an important design criterion to reduce latency and overhead energy consumption in a relay-assisted large-scale network. We also demonstrate the performance of the ODSR using simulations in realistic scenarios of a wireless network.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5011-5022
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Systems Journal
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2007-2012 IEEE.


This work was supported in part by the Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India, under Start-up Research Grant SRG/2019/002345. This work was supported in part by MEYS in the framework of the Czech-Israel project MSMT-10795/2015-1 under Grant 8G15008, in part by the Israeli Ministry of Science and Technology under Grant 3-13038 for cooperation with the Czech Republic, in part by the ISF Grant 1644/18, and in part by the Grant Agency of the Czech Technical University in Prague under Grant SGS20/169/OHK3/3 T/13.

FundersFunder number
České Vysoké Učení Technické v PrazeSGS20/169/OHK3/3 T/13
Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Science and Technology, IndiaSRG/2019/002345
Ministerstvo Školství, Mládeže a Tělovýchovy8G15008, MSMT-10795/2015-1
Science and Engineering Research Board
Israel Science Foundation1644/18
Ministry of science and technology, Israel3-13038


    • 5G
    • Raleigh fading
    • device-to-device (D2D) communications
    • energy consumption
    • log-normal shadowing
    • performance analysis
    • relaying


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