Insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells is tightly regulated by glucose and paracrine signals within the microenvironment of islets of Langerhans. Extracellular matrix from islet microcapillary endothelial cells (IMEC) affect beta-cell spreading and amplify insulin secretion. This study was aimed at investigating the hypothesis that contact-independent paracrine signals generated from IMEC may also modulate beta-cell insulin secretory functions. For this purpose, conditioned medium (CMp) preparations were prepared from primary cultures of rat IMEC and were used to simulate contact-independent beta cell-endothelial cell communication. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) assays were then performed on freshly isolated rat islets and the INS-1E insulinoma cell line, followed by fractionation of the CMp, mass spectroscopic identification of the factor, and characterization of the mechanism of action. The IMEC-derived CMp markedly attenuated first-and second-phase GSIS in a time-and dose-dependent manner without altering cellular insulin content and cell viability. Size exclusion fractionation, chromatographic and mass-spectroscopic analyses of the CMp identified the attenuating factor as the enzyme triosephosphate isomerase (TPI). An antibody against TPI abrogated the attenuating activity of the CMp while recombinant human TPI (hTPI) attenuated GSIS from beta cells. This effect was reversed in the presence of tolbutamide in the GSIS assay. In silico docking simulation identified regions on the TPI dimer that were important for potential interactions with the extracellular epitopes of the sulfonylurea receptor in the complex. This study supports the hypothesis that an effective paracrine interaction exists between IMEC and beta cells and modulates glucose-induced insulin secretion via TPI-sulfonylurea receptor-KATP channel (SUR1-Kir6.2) complex attenuating interactions.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2020 The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Endocrine Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
- endothelial cells
- islets of Langerhans
- pancreatic beta cells
- triosephosphate isomerase