Emergence of antigenic variants with in serotype A foot and mouth disease virus in India and evaluation of a new vaccine candidate panel

Ajjaiah G. Rudreshappa, Aniket Sanyal, Jajati K. Mohapatra, Saravanan Subramaniam, Ankan De, Biswajit Das, Nagendrakumar B. Singanallur, Anil K. Jangam, Madhanmohan Muthukrishnan, Srinivasan A. Villuppanoor, Bramhadev Pattnaik

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16 Scopus citations


Emergence of genetically and antigenically divergent lineages/genotypes and poor intergenotypic antigenic coverage is a major concern in serotype A foot-and-mouth-disease virus (FMDV) in India. In 2009, to cover antigenic diversity emerged in serotype A virus field isolates, IND40/2000 was selected as the new vaccine strain for incorporation in the trivalent FMD vaccine formulation used in India. Although current vaccine strain (IND40/2000) covers most isolates antigenically, a few VP359-deletion group isolates showed low r-value in routine vaccine matching exercise. The VP359-deletion group within genotype 18 emerged first in late part of 2002 and in 2007 causing outbreaks along with non-deletion isolates of the same genotype. In case of emergence or re-emergence of more antigenically divergent isolates in future, a need for a new vaccine candidate to cover maximum isolates of both deletion and non-deletion group may arise. Four alternate candidate vaccine strains (IND281/2003, IND195/2007, IND360/2007 and IND123/2008) were selected based on set criteria and antigenic relationships with field isolates sampled between 2002 and 2009 were analyzed using a micro-neutralization test. Phylogenetic analysis based on capsid region of serotype A isolates revealed existence of two broad distinct clusters (VP359-deletion and non-deletion group) within genotype 18. The VP359-deletion group has diversified genetically with time giving rise to three different sub-lineages (clade18a, 18b and 18c). The present study indicates that the virus candidates IND281/2003 (VP359-deletion group) and IND195/2007 (non-deletion group) can be used as an adjunct or alternative strain to currently used vaccine strain IND40/2000 in case of emergence of more antigenically divergent isolates in future.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)405-409
Number of pages5
JournalVeterinary Microbiology
Issue number3-4
StatePublished - 17 Aug 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • FMDV serotype A
  • Genotype 18
  • VP3-deletion group
  • Vaccine strain selection


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