Efficient degradation of emerging organic pollutant by cerium phosphate/g-C3N4/Vis/PMS system: Catalytic kinetics and toxicity evaluation

Romiyo Justinabraham, Arulappan Durairaj, Subramanian Ramanathan, Dhanasekaran Padmanabhan, Ramachandran John Wesley, Asir Obadiah, Xiaomeng Lv, Subramaniyan Ramasundaram, Samuel Vasanthkumar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


The Cerium Phosphate (CP) doped g-C3N4(g-CN) composite was synthesized by a simple hydrothermal process. The crystal nature, absorbance, morphology, elemental analysis, functional groups analysis, charge and particle size of all the synthesized materials were examined by various characterization techniques like UV − Vis-DRS spectroscopy (UV–Vis),Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy analysis (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy techniques (TEM), zeta potential and particle size analyser. The characterized CP/g-CN composite was used as a photocatalyst for the degradation of malachite green (Mal G) dye under the visible light irradiation with peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation. The composite material was found to successfully overcome the electron hole recombination process. The PMS activation process was used to enhance the photocatalytic efficiency of the synthesized CP/g-CN composite. The synthesized CP/g-CN with PMS activation exhibits 94% of malachite green dye degradation in time duration of 90 min and also was found to retain 90% of degradation efficiency after four consecutive photocatalytic performances. The toxicity of the photocatalytic degraded water sample was examined by the animal and plant mortality studies. The zebra fish (Danio rerio) and Mung bean (Vigna radiata) were employed in the animal and plant survival investigations. The CP/g-CN photocatalyst treated dye solution is found to be fit for animal and plant survival and therefore it is a potential photocatalyst for water remediation application.

Original languageEnglish
Article number109067
JournalDiamond and Related Materials
StatePublished - Jun 2022
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022


The authors thank the management and administration of Karunya Institute of Technology and sciences for their support and help. The authors are thankful to the Dhanajeevam Life Sciences for their support. The authors are grateful to Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of India for their financial support (DST/TDT/WM/2019/73G).

FundersFunder number
Dhanajeevam Life Sciences
Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Science and Technology, IndiaDST/TDT/WM/2019/73G


    • Carbonaceous material
    • Cerium phosphate
    • Dye degradation
    • Organic pollutant
    • Photocatalyst


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