Effects of refractive index mismatch in optical CT imaging of polymer gel dosimeters

Rakesh Manjappa, Sharath Makki S, Rajesh Kumar, Rajan Kanhirodan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Purpose: Proposing an image reconstruction technique, algebraic reconstruction technique-refraction correction (ART-rc). The proposed method takes care of refractive index mismatches present in gel dosimeter scanner at the boundary, and also corrects for the interior ray refraction. Polymer gel dosimeters with high dose regions have higher refractive index and optical density compared to the background medium, these changes in refractive index at high dose results in interior ray bending. Methods: The inclusion of the effects of refraction is an important step in reconstruction of optical density in gel dosimeters. The proposed ray tracing algorithm models the interior multiple refraction at the inhomogeneities. Jacobs ray tracing algorithm has been modified to calculate the pathlengths of the ray that traverses through the higher dose regions. The algorithm computes the length of the ray in each pixel along its path and is used as the weight matrix. Algebraic reconstruction technique and pixel based reconstruction algorithms are used for solving the reconstruction problem. The proposed method is tested with numerical phantoms for various noise levels. The experimental dosimetric results are also presented. Results: The results show that the proposed scheme ART-rc is able to reconstruct optical density inside the dosimeter better than the results obtained using filtered backprojection and conventional algebraic reconstruction approaches. The quantitative improvement using ART-rc is evaluated using gamma-index. The refraction errors due to regions of different refractive indices are discussed. The effects of modeling of interior refraction in the dose region are presented. Conclusions: The errors propagated due to multiple refraction effects have been modeled and the improvements in reconstruction using proposed model is presented. The refractive index of the dosimeter has a mismatch with the surrounding medium (for dry air or water scanning). The algorithm reconstructs the dose profiles by estimating refractive indices of multiple inhomogeneities having different refractive indices and optical densities embedded in the dosimeter. This is achieved by tracking the path of the ray that traverses through the dosimeter. Extensive simulation studies have been carried out and results are found to be matching that of experimental results.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)750-759
Number of pages10
JournalMedical Physics
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2015
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.


  • image reconstruction
  • optical tomography
  • polymer gel dosimetry
  • refraction correction
  • total variation denoising


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