The notion that parathyroid hormone (PTH) can serve as an immunomodulator was examined. T cell function tests were performed in 3 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism before and 1 month after parathyroidectomy (PTX). Three normal volunteers, age and sex matched, were used as controls. One patient with lipoma of the neck was also examined before and after surgical removal of the lesion. In the primary hyperparathyroidism patients the total T cells were lower, the suppressors were higher and the helper to suppressor ratio was significantly lower than in control subjects. The lectin-stimulated lymphocyte transformation was significantly inhibited. All these abnormalities were restored to normal after PTX. Depressed lymphocyte activity was found also in the patient with lipoma. However, no change occurred after surgery. These results support the assumption that excess blood levels of PTH may have an immunosuppressive effect.