Economic Choice and Heart Rate Fractal Scaling Indicate That Cognitive Effort Is Reduced by Depression and Boosted by Sad Mood

Andrew Westbrook, Xiao Yang, Lauren M. Bylsma, Shimrit Daches, Charles J. George, Andrew J. Seidman, J. Richard Jennings, Maria Kovacs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Background: People with depression typically exhibit diminished cognitive control. Control is subjectively costly, prompting speculation that control deficits reflect reduced cognitive effort. Evidence that people with depression exert less cognitive effort is mixed, however, and motivation may depend on state affect. Methods: We used a cognitive effort discounting task to measure propensity to expend cognitive effort and fractal structure in the temporal dynamics of interbeat intervals to assess on-task effort exertion for 49 healthy control subjects, 36 people with current depression, and 67 people with remitted depression. Results: People with depression discounted more steeply, indicating that they were less willing to exert cognitive effort than people with remitted depression and never-depressed control subjects. Also, steeper discounting predicted worse functioning in daily life. Surprisingly, a sad mood induction selectively boosted motivation among participants with depression, erasing differences between them and control subjects. During task performance, depressed participants with the lowest cognitive motivation showed blunted autonomic reactivity as a function of load. Conclusions: Discounting patterns supported the hypothesis that people with current depression would be less willing to exert cognitive effort, and steeper discounting predicted lower global functioning in daily life. Heart rate fractal scaling proved to be a highly sensitive index of cognitive load, and data implied that people with lower motivation for cognitive effort had a diminished physiological capacity to respond to rising cognitive demands. State affect appeared to influence motivation among people with current depression given that they were more willing to exert cognitive effort following a sad mood induction.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)687-694
Number of pages8
JournalBiological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Issue number7
Early online date7 Aug 2022
StatePublished - Jul 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Society of Biological Psychiatry


  • Cognitive effort
  • Depression
  • Detrended fluctuation analysis
  • Effort discounting
  • Mood induction
  • Vagal withdrawal


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