The E2F family of transcription factors has been implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation, and E2F-binding sites are present in the promoters of several growth-regulating genes. E2F family members are functionally regulated, in part, by complex formation with one or more members of the nuclear pocket protein family, RB, p107, and p130. Pocket protein regulation of E2F likely contributes to normal cellular growth control. While the three cloned species of E2F, E2F-1, E2F-2, and E2F-3, are known to be targets of RB interaction, no E2F species has yet been shown to be a specific p107 or p130 target. Here, we describe the cloning of a new member of the E2F family, E2F-4, which forms heterodimers with a member(s) of the DP family and, unlike some family members, is present throughout the cell cycle and appears to be a differentially phosphorylated p107-binding partner. p107 binding not only can be linked to the regulation of E2F-4 transcriptional activity, but also to suppression of the ability of E2F-4 to transform an immortalized rodent cell line.
- cell cycle
- growth control