Dynamical nonlocality in quantum time via modular operators

I. L. Paiva, M. Nowakowski, E. Cohen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


We formalize the concept of the modular energy operator within the Page and Wootters timeless framework. As a result, this operator is elevated to the same status as the more studied modular operators of position and momentum. In analogy with dynamical nonlocality in space associated with the modular momentum, we introduce and analyze the nonlocality in time associated with the modular energy operator. Some applications of our formalization are provided through illustrative examples.

Original languageEnglish
Article number042207
JournalPhysical Review A
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We are grateful to Yakir Aharonov for many helpful discussions. In addition, we wish to thank Leon Bello, Jordan Cotler, Paweł Horodecki, Zohar Schwartzman-Nowik, and Mordecai Waegell for their constructive comments regarding the current text. This research was supported by Grant No. FQXi-RFP-CPW-2006 from the Foundational Questions Institute and Fetzer Franklin Fund, a donor-advised fund of Silicon Valley Community Foundation, by the Israeli Innovation authority (Grants 70002 and 73795), by the Pazy foundation, by the Israeli Ministry of Sciences and Technology, and by the Quantum Science and Technology Program of the Israeli Council of Higher Education.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 American Physical Society.


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