Does Routine Sedation Influence Anxiety and CRP levels in Patients Undergoing Elective Coronary Catheterization?

Saeed Khatib, Lidia Izakson, Elena Bukovetzky, Majdi Halabi, Soliman Khatib, Rodrigo Bagur, Adi Sharabi-Nov, Zipi Regev-Avraham, Zuheir Farraj, Zeev Israeli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: Cardiac catheterization is associated with patient anxiety. Benzodiazepines are often used to relieve anxiety in this setting. The association between anxiety level and C-reactive protein (CRP) remains equivocal. We sought to determine whether anxiety and CRP levels in patients undergoing elective left heart catheterization differ when routine sedation with midazolam is administered. METHODS: Patients undergoing elective left heart catheterization were randomly assigned to receive 2 mg of midazolam intravenously or placebo before access insertion in a double-blinded manner. Levels of anxiety were assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Adults (short form) and high-sensitivity CRP at the time of admission and discharge. Surrogate markers for anxiety, such as blood pressure and pulse, were recorded before and after the procedure. Patient-perceived discomfort was measured with a visual analog scale (VAS) on a 0-10 scale. RESULTS: One hundred patients (52 receiving treatment, 48 receiving placebo) participated in the study. Baseline demographic characteristics and previous medical conditions were well balanced between groups. Anxiety level, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure were all higher at procedure start than post procedure, but did not differ between the groups. CRP levels were similar at both time points for patients in both groups (0.77 ± 2.53 mg/L pre procedure and 0.70 ± 2.08 mg/L post procedure in the midazolam group vs 0.79 ± 1.39 mg/L pre procedure and 0.83 ± 1.45 mg/L post procedure in the placebo group). Discomfort level assessment was also alike (2.6 ± 2.4 in the treatment group vs 3.4 ± 2.5 in the placebo group; P=.12). CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous midazolam administration does not seem to relieve patient discomfort and anxiety nor does it influence CRP level. Therefore, an approach tailored to the patient is advisable.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E993-E997
JournalJournal of Invasive Cardiology
Issue number12
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2021


  • CRP
  • anxiety
  • elective catheterization
  • midazolam
  • sedation


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