DNAH11 localization in the proximal region of respiratory cilia defines distinct outer dynein arm complexes

Gerard W. Dougherty, Niki T. Loges, Judith A. Klinkenbusch, Heike Olbrich, Petra Pennekamp, Tabea Menchen, Johanna Raidt, Julia Wallmeier, Claudius Werner, Cordula Westermann, Christian Ruckert, Virginia Mirra, Rim Hjeij, Yasin Memari, Richard Durbin, Anja Kolb-Kokocinski, Kavita Praveen, Mohammad A. Kashef, Sara Kashef, Fardin EghtedariKarsten Häffner, Pekka Valmari, György Baktai, Micha Aviram, Lea Bentur, Israel Amirav, Erica E. Davis, Nicholas Katsanis, Martina Brueckner, Artem Shaposhnykov, Gaia Pigino, Bernd Dworniczak, Heymut Omran

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

96 Scopus citations


Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a recessively inherited disease that leads to chronic respiratory disorders owing to impaired mucociliary clearance. Conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a diagnostic standard to identify ultrastructural defects in respiratory cilia but is not useful in approximately 30% of PCD cases, which have normal ciliary ultrastructure.DNAH11mutations are a common cause of PCD with normal ciliary ultrastructure and hyperkinetic ciliary beating, but its pathophysiology remains poorly understood.We therefore characterized DNAH11 in human respiratory cilia by immunofluorescence microscopy (IFM) in the context of PCD.We used whole-exome and targeted next-generation sequence analysis as well as Sanger sequencing to identify and confirm eight novel loss-offunction DNAH11 mutations. We designed and validated a monoclonal antibody specific to DNAH11 and performed highresolution IFM of both control and PCD-affected human respiratory cells, as well as samples from green fluorescent protein (GFP)-left-right dynein mice, to determine the ciliary localization of DNAH11. IFM analysis demonstrated native DNAH11 localization in only the proximal region of wild-type human respiratory cilia and loss of DNAH11 in individuals with PCD with certain loss-of-function DNAH11 mutations.GFP-left-right dyneinmice confirmed proximal DNAH11 localization in tracheal cilia. DNAH11 retained proximal localization in respiratory cilia of individuals with PCD with distinct ultrastructural defects, such as the absence of outer dynein arms (ODAs). TEM tomography detected a partial reduction of ODAs in DNAH11-deficient cilia. DNAH11 mutations result in a subtle ODA defect in only the proximal region of respiratory cilia, which is detectable by IFM and TEM tomography.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)213-224
Number of pages12
JournalAmerican Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 2016
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2016 by the American Thoracic Society.


  • Left-right dynein; primary ciliary dyskinesia; normal ciliary ultrastructure; immunofluorescence microscopy; transmission electron microscopy


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