The increasing interest and need to shift to sustainable energy give rise to the utilization of fuel cell technologies in various applications. The challenging task of hydrogen storage and transport led to the development of liquid hydrogen carriers (LHCs) as fuels for direct LHC fuel cells, such as methanol in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Although simpler to handle, most direct LHC fuel cells suffer from durability and price issues derived from high catalysts’ loadings and byproducts of the oxidation reaction of the fuel. Herein, we report on the development of direct hydroquinone fuel cells (DQFCs) based on anthraquinone-2,7-disulfonic acid (AQDS) as an LHC. We have shown that DQFC can operate with a continuous flow of quinone as a hydrogen carrier, outperforming the incumbent state-of-the-art DMFC by a factor of 3 in peak power density while completely removing the need for any catalyst at the anode. In addition, we demonstrate that quinone can be charged with protons in the same system, making it a reversible fuel cell system. We optimized the operating conditions and discussed the governing conditions to reach the best performance.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2023 American Chemical Society.