Direct Air-to-Underwater Optical Wireless Communication: Statistical Characterization and Outage Performance

Ziyaur Rahman, S. M. Zafaruddin, V. K. Chaubey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


In general, a buoy relay is used to connect the underwater communication to the terrestrial network over a radio or optical wireless communication (OWC) link. The use of relay deployment may pose security and deployment issues. This paper investigates the feasibility of direct air-to-underwater (A2UW) communication from an over-the-sea OWC system to an underwater submarine without deploying a relaying node. We analyze the statistical performance of the direct transmission over the combined channel fading effect of atmospheric turbulence, random fog, air-to-water interface, oceanic turbulence, and pointing errors. We develop novel analytical expressions for the probability density function (PDF) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the resultant signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in terms of bivariate Meijer-G and Fox-H functions. We use the derived statistical results to analyze the system performance by providing exact and asymptotic results of the outage probability in terms of system parameters. We use computer simulations to demonstrate the performance of direct A2UW transmissions compared to the relay-assisted system.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2655-2660
Number of pages6
JournalIEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2023
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Thisworkwas supported in part by the Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), India under MATRICS Grant MTR/2021/000890 and in part Start-up Research under Grant SRG/2019/002345.

Publisher Copyright:
© 1967-2012 IEEE.


  • Atmospheric turbulence
  • BS distribution
  • UWOC
  • fog
  • outage probability
  • underwater communications


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