Development of bifunctional photoactivatable benzophenone probes and their application to glycoside substrates

Nir Qvit, Galya Monderer-Rothkoff, Ayelet Ido, Deborah E. Shalev, Orna Amster-Choder, Chaim Gilon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Photoaffinity labeling is used to covalently attach ligands to macromolecules to determine their spatial arrangement and structure. Benzophenone (BP) groups are widely used for covalent photoaffinity labeling and for probing protein interactions. We developed bifunctional BP photoactivatable derivatives using three different general chemical approaches. In addition to the photoaffinity reactivity of the BP, these derivatives contain an additional group: A radioactive tracer for biological studies, or an N-ethylmaleimide group as an additional crosslinker, or a biotin group to be used during purification and characterization of probe-protein complexes using the high-affinity biotin-avidin interaction. A model series of photoaffinity labeling probes was synthesized based on the arbutin ligand. These compounds can be used as probes to study the arbutin binding site of microbial β-glucoside transporters by photolabeling residues in its vicinity. The second functionality provides additional options for studying proteins and binding sites. The probes were developed using different methodologies: (i) a diazotation reaction; (ii) protecting group methodology; and (iii) solid-phase synthesis. These procedures are general and provide a simple and versatile approach for synthesizing bifunctional BP ligands, as demonstrated here on arbutin.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)526-536
Number of pages11
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Arbutin
  • Benzophenone
  • Photoactivatable
  • Probes


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