Determination of Refractive Error and Prescription of Spectacles

Leon Strauss, Shimon Rumelt, Dimitri T. Azar

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


Refractive error is determined by retinoscopy and subjective refinement, employing Jackson cross cylinder and other subjective techniques. The prescription of spectacles includes the choice of lens powers for distance and near, lens design, and choice of lens material.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAlbert and Jakobiec's Principles and Practice of Ophthalmology
Subtitle of host publicationFourth Edition
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages15
ISBN (Electronic)9783030426347
ISBN (Print)9783030426330
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2022.


  • Accommodation
  • Anisometropia
  • Dispersion
  • Jackson cross cylinder
  • Lens effectivity
  • Presbyopia
  • Retinoscopy


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