Denmark’s Engagement in the Oslo Peace Process

Nir Levitan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Since 1993, professional and historical record literature has largely focused on the Norwegian involvement in the Oslo peace process. Denmark’s extensive mediation efforts to resolve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict have not received similar scrutiny. This article assesses Denmark’s involvement in the period following the Oslo Declaration of Principles in 1993. Denmark’s peace engagement included two main diplomatic tracks. The unofficial track was designated as the Louisiana Process and the official track was named the Road Map for Peace. In both tracks, Denmark was able to demonstrate a comprehensive foreign policy that reflected a unique mediation strategy. Denmark’s capacity to alter the nature of the conflict was restricted by its meager resources and its inability to impose decisions on the involved parties.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)48-66
Number of pages19
JournalIsrael Studies Review
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2023
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Association for Israel Studies


In 1982, Denmark assumed the presidency of the Council of the European Community and Danish Foreign Minister U ?e Ellemann-Jensen was tasked with implementing the European Community policy toward the Middle East (Ellemann-Jensen 2018). In the early 1990s, Danish statesmen missed an opportunity to facilitate a political breakthrough between Israel and the Palestinians due to their hesitance to pursue an agreement between the parties.1 Despite e ?orts by Israeli figures, such as Ron Pundak, to secure Danish funding for informal negotiations, these requests were not successful. Pundak’s request for funding for the ECF (Economic Co-operation Foundation) project, aimed at promoting economic cooperation between Israel and the Palestinians, was denied despite positive meetings with the Danish Ambassador to Israel and with the Head of the Middle East desk at the Danish Foreign Ministry (Ellemann-Jensen 2018; Pundak 2013; Pundik 2007: 307–308).

FundersFunder number
Economic Co-operation Foundation


    • Denmark
    • Louisiana Process
    • Middle East peace process
    • Oslo Accords
    • Peace engagement
    • Road Map for Peace


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