Deep Tattoo Ink Depth Profiling in Ex Vivo Porcine Skin Using Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy

Pavitra Sokke Rudraiah, Sukanta Nandi, Hamootal Duadi, Dror Fixler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Human body is a complex system composed of various chemicals, and thus inserting any foreign chemicals can lead to long-lasting damage. One such process is tattooing, which is widely common among all sections of human society. Nevertheless, there is a huge demand for safe tattoo removal, intending to target only the ink particles and protect the skin components. This work discusses the development of a non-invasive technique to assess tattoo ink location in the deep tissue layers. Tattoo ink was injected systematically from 1 - 6 mm depth, parallel to the surface of an ex vivo porcine skin. The adopted methodology of the crossover point-based diffuse reflectance (DR) technique could effectively and precisely detect the tattoo ink location in the depths. A good quantitative agreement between the detected ink location and injected ink depth on cross-section tattooed skins were observed. The DR technique thus opens avenues for new applications in the clinical field for a non-invasive understanding of deep tissue regimes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6900206
JournalIEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 1995-2012 IEEE.


  • Crossover point
  • diffuse reflectance
  • porcine skin
  • tattoo pigment depth


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