Cross-Cultural Adult ADHD Assessment in 42 Countries Using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Screener

Sungkyunkwan University’s research team

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective: We analyzed adult ADHD symptoms in a cross-cultural context, including investigating the occurrence and potential correlates of adult ADHD and psychometric examination of the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener. Method: Our analysis is based on a large-scale research project involving 42 countries (International Sex Survey, N=72,627, 57% women, Mage=32.84; SDage=12.57). Results: The ASRS Screener demonstrated good reliability and validity, along with partial invariance across different languages, countries, and genders. The occurrence of being at risk for adult ADHD was relatively high (21.4% for women, 18.1% for men). The highest scores were obtained in the US, Canada, and other English-speaking Western countries, with significantly lower scores among East Asian and non-English-speaking European countries. Moreover, ADHD symptom severity and occurrence were especially high among gender-diverse individuals. Significant associations between adult ADHD symptoms and age, mental and sexual health, and socioeconomic status were observed. Conclusions: Present results show significant cross-cultural variability in adult ADHD occurrence as well as highlight important factors related to adult ADHD. Moreover, the importance of further research on adult ADHD in previously understudied populations (non-Western countries) and minority groups (gender-diverse individuals) is stressed. Lastly, the present analysis is consistent with previous evidence showing low specificity of adult ADHD screening instruments and contributes to the current discussion on accurate adult ADHD screening and diagnosis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)512-530
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Attention Disorders
Volume28
Issue number4
Early online date5 Jan 2024
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2024
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2024.

Funding

The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: KLe was supported by Sonatina grant awarded by National Science Centre, Poland, grant number: 2020/36/C/HS6/00005. MG was supported by National Science Centre of Poland grant number: 2021/40/Q/HS6/00219. LN was supported by the ÚNKP-22-3 New National Excellence Program of the Ministry for Culture and Innovation from the source of the National Research, Development and Innovation Fund. MK was supported by the ÚNKP-22-3 New National Excellence Program of the Ministry for Culture and Innovation from the source of the National Research, Development and Innovation Fund. SWK was supported by the Kindbridge Research Institute. ZD was supported by the Hungarian National Research, Development, and Innovation Office (Grant number: KKP126835). SB was supported by a Tier 1 Canada Research Chair. LJC was supported by the National Social Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 19BSH117). RC was supported by Auckland University of Technology, 2021 Faculty Research Development Fund. HF was supported by Grant-in-Aid for Transformative Research Areas (A) (Japan Society for The Promotion of Science, JP21H05173), Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) (Japan Society for The Promotion of Science, 21H02849), and the smoking research foundation. RG was supported by Charles University institutional support program Cooperatio-Health Sciences. JBG was supported by grants from the International Center for Responsible Gaming and the Kindbridge Research Institute. CY-L was supported by the WUN Research Development Fund (RDF) 2021. JBi and ChL received support from the WUN Research Development Fund (RDF) 2021. KLu was supported by Charles University institutional support program Cooperatio-Health Sciences. PMT was supported by Universidad Cientifica del Sur. GO was supported by the ANR grant of the Chaire Professeur Junior of Artois University and by the Strategic Dialogue and Management Scholarship (Phase 1 and 2). SURT was supported by Brain Korea 21 (BK21) program of National Research Foundation of Korea. GQG was supported by the SNI #073–2022 (SENACYT, Rep. of Panama). KR was supported by a funding from the Hauts-de-France region (France) called “Dialogue Stratégique de Gestion 2 (DSG2).” DS was supported by the South African Medical Research Council. MPVM was supported by a Research Chair from the Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières and a career award from the Fonds de recherche du Québec–Santé (FRQ-S).

FundersFunder number
Artois University
Kindbridge Research Institute.
Ministry for Culture and Innovation
SENACYT, Rep. of Panama
Tier 1 Canada Research Chair
WUN Research Development Fund
Univerzita Karlova v Praze
Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand2021 Faculty Research Development Fund
Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières
Rare Disease Foundation
International Center for Responsible Gaming
Universidad Científica del Sur
Fonds de Recherche du Québec - Santé
South African Medical Research Council
Agence Nationale de la Recherche
Japan Society for the Promotion of ScienceJP21H05173, 21H02849
National Research Foundation of KoreaBrain Korea 21 (BK21) program
Narodowe Centrum Nauki2021/40/Q/HS6/00219, 2020/36/C/HS6/00005
Smoking Research Foundation
Région Hauts-de-France
Nemzeti Kutatási Fejlesztési és Innovációs HivatalKKP126835
National Office for Philosophy and Social Sciences
National Social Science Fund of China19BSH117
Nemzeti Kutatási, Fejlesztési és Innovaciós Alap
Sistema Nacional de Investigadores073–2022
Sistema Nacional de Investigación, Secretaría Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e InnovaciónSNI #073—2022

    Keywords

    • ADHD
    • adult ADHD
    • assessment
    • attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
    • cross-cultural

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