Background and aim: Rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) can improve adequacy rates of fine needle aspiration (FNA) and thus save operational costs. Our aim was to assess the cost-efficacy of ROSE performed during endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-FNA of gastrointestinal lesions. Method: This was a retrospective cohort study of 156 patients who underwent EUS-FNA for pancreatic, submucosal upper gastrointestinal, and adjacent lesions at Galilee Medical Center between 2012 and 2017. The patient cohort was divided into group A (62 patients, 39.7%) who underwent EUS-FNA with ROSE, and group B (94 patients, 60.3%) without ROSE. Cost analysis was based on the additional expenditure of repeated EUS-FNA sessions needed to reach accurate and final diagnosis in the two groups. Results: The overall cost was significantly higher in group B ($121 422) as compared to group A ($72 861), including the ROSE cost. Additional EUS-FNA sessions were needed in 11.3% and 23.4% in groups A and B, respectively. The additional cost to achieve final pathological diagnosis was $7203 and $24 696 in groups A and B, respectively (P =.02), yielding a savings of $252 per EUS-FNA case by adding ROSE. Notably, adding ROSE to the EUS-FNA exam for gastrointestinal non-pancreatic lesions resulted in even higher savings per case ($682.40). Moreover, adding ROSE improved specimen adequacy to achieve final pathological diagnosis (odds ratio = 7.13, P =.0005). Conclusions: EUS-FNA with ROSE was cost-effective. Incorporating ROSE into the clinical practice of EUS-FNA saves costs and improves specimen adequacy.
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