The correlation between skin reaction, exhibited by vaccinees immunized against smallpox, and antibody titer determined by plaque neutralization and ELISA, was evaluated. Twenty eight out of 35 young adults (vaccinated at infancy and at the age of 8 years), who were injected with vaccinia virus, displayed a major skin reaction a week later. An increase of four-folds and more, in antibody titer against vaccinia virus, is generally considered positive immunization take-up against smallpox. According to this criterion, only 17 of the vaccinees were found positive by plaque neutralization, while 25 by the indirect micro-ELISA. Thus, there were eight vaccinees who were considered immunized by the ELISA, (seven of them also according to the skin reaction), but not by the plaque neutralization test.