TY - JOUR

T1 - Coprime networks of the composite numbers

T2 - Pseudo-randomness and synchronizability

AU - Miraj, Md Rahil

AU - Ghosh, Dibakar

AU - Hens, Chittaranjan

N1 - Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 Elsevier B.V.

PY - 2024/10/15

Y1 - 2024/10/15

N2 - In this paper, we propose a network whose nodes are labeled by the composite numbers and two nodes are connected by an undirected link if they are relatively prime to each other. As the size of the network increases, the network will be connected whenever the largest possible node index n≥49. To investigate how the nodes are connected, we analytically describe that the link density saturates to 6/π2, whereas the average degree increases linearly with slope 6/π2 with the size of the network. To investigate how the neighbors of the nodes are connected to each other, we find the shortest path length will be at most 3 for 49≤n≤288 and it is at most 2 for n≥289. We also derive an analytic expression for the local clustering coefficients of the nodes, which quantifies how close the neighbors of a node to form a triangle. We also provide an expression for the number of r-length labeled cycles, which indicates the existence of a cycle of length at most O(logn). Finally, we show that this graph sequence is actually a sequence of weakly pseudo-random graphs. We numerically verify our observed analytical results. As a possible application, we have observed less synchronizability (the ratio of the largest and smallest positive eigenvalue of the Laplacian matrix is high) as compared to Erdős–Rényi random network and Barabási–Albert network. This unusual observation is consistent with the prolonged transient behaviors of ecological and predator–prey networks which can easily avoid the global synchronization.

AB - In this paper, we propose a network whose nodes are labeled by the composite numbers and two nodes are connected by an undirected link if they are relatively prime to each other. As the size of the network increases, the network will be connected whenever the largest possible node index n≥49. To investigate how the nodes are connected, we analytically describe that the link density saturates to 6/π2, whereas the average degree increases linearly with slope 6/π2 with the size of the network. To investigate how the neighbors of the nodes are connected to each other, we find the shortest path length will be at most 3 for 49≤n≤288 and it is at most 2 for n≥289. We also derive an analytic expression for the local clustering coefficients of the nodes, which quantifies how close the neighbors of a node to form a triangle. We also provide an expression for the number of r-length labeled cycles, which indicates the existence of a cycle of length at most O(logn). Finally, we show that this graph sequence is actually a sequence of weakly pseudo-random graphs. We numerically verify our observed analytical results. As a possible application, we have observed less synchronizability (the ratio of the largest and smallest positive eigenvalue of the Laplacian matrix is high) as compared to Erdős–Rényi random network and Barabási–Albert network. This unusual observation is consistent with the prolonged transient behaviors of ecological and predator–prey networks which can easily avoid the global synchronization.

KW - Network science

KW - Prime and composite numbers

KW - Pseudo-random graph

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85192671967&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.dam.2024.04.024

DO - 10.1016/j.dam.2024.04.024

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AN - SCOPUS:85192671967

SN - 0166-218X

VL - 355

SP - 96

EP - 110

JO - Discrete Applied Mathematics

JF - Discrete Applied Mathematics

ER -