Controlled iodine release from polyurethane sponges for water decontamination

Oren Aviv, Natalia Laout, Stanislav Ratner, Oshrat Harik, Konda Reddy Kunduru, Abraham J. Domb

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Iodinated polyurethane (IPU) sponges were prepared by immersing sponges in aqueous/organic solutions of iodine or exposing sponges to iodine vapors. Iodine was readily adsorbed into the polymers up to 100% (w/w). The adsorption of iodine on the surface was characterized by XPS and SEM analyses. The iodine loaded IPU sponges were coated with ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), in order to release iodine in a controlled rate for water decontamination combined with active carbon cartridge, which adsorbs the iodine residues after the microbial inactivation. The EVA coated IPU were incorporated in a water purifier and tested for iodine release to water and for microbial inactivation efficiency according to WQA certification program against P231/EPA for 250 l, using 25 l a day with flow rate of 6-8 min/1 l. The antimicrobial activity was also studied against Escherichia coli and MS2 phage. Bacterial results exceeded the minimal requirement for bacterial removal of 6 log reduction throughout the entire lifespan. At any testing point, no bacteria was detected in the outlet achieving more than 7.1 to more than 8 log reduction as calculated upon the inlet concentration. Virus surrogate, MS2, reduction results varied from 4.11 log reduction under tap water, and 5.11 log reduction under basic water (pH 9) to 1.32 for acidic water (pH 5). Controlled and stable iodine release was observed with the EVA coated IPU sponges and was effective in deactivating the bacteria and virus present in the contaminated water and thus, these iodinated PU systems could be used in water purification to provide safe drinking water. These sponges may find applications as disinfectants in medicine.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)634-640
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Controlled Release
Issue number3
StatePublished - 28 Dec 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Antimicrobial agent
  • Controlled iodine release
  • Iodinated polyurethane sponges
  • Iodine
  • Water purification


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