Continuous exposure to life threats among different age groups in different types of communities

Orit Nuttman-Shwartz, Rachel Dekel, Irit Regev

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12 Scopus citations


The current study compared levels of posttraumatic symptoms (PTS) resulting from continuous exposure to missile attacks among residents of 2 types of communities (urban vs. rural) in 2 different age groups (elderly persons vs. young adults). We also took into account the contribution of individual resources (sociodemographic variables) and community resources (type of community of residence and sense of belonging to the community). The results revealed that, in general, the elderly residents were classified as suffering from more posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and reported more PTS. Nonetheless, type of community of residence as well as individual and social resources contributed more to PTS symptoms than did the participants' age. The results are analyzed in light of the current literature on PTS, and in light of literature dealing with the impact of developmental life stage among populations that are continuously exposed to traumatic events.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)269-276
Number of pages8
JournalPsychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 May 2015

Bibliographical note

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© 2014 American Psychological Association. All rights reserved.


  • continuous exposure
  • life cycle
  • posttraumatic stress
  • sense of belonging
  • type of community


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